Riggs further stated that a perfect method of comparative public administration must be based on ecological study or analysis. Though there are aplenty,however,some examples are cited below. Why has all caution been thrown to the winds over the serious problem for the ruling class of the succession? According to this approach every society has various structures that perform specific functions like political,economic,social,symbolic and communicational functions in the society. The Monarchy in Thailand can cope with either a democratic regime or a military junta. The relationship between the citizens and sala officials is also affected by poly-normativism.
And instead of providing a long essay on any particular topic, it would be beneficial for all of points are provided in the form of answer formats. Because of the clear influence of environment upon society and mode of living of the people public administration and ecology have come to be related. They both have to adjust to each other and also reform and change each other from time to time to stay up to date where the people's wishes drive the policies and the policies bring in development that uplifts the socio-economic status and level of the environment for progress. Historical materialism helps us look at changes taking place within society which have economic roots. In Agrarian primordial preferences like caste and given priority. This analytical perspective tends to exclude other factors, which by extension prevents alternative explanations including the psychological and cognitive aspects of a prismatic administrative system. In prismatic society there exist urban areas with a sophisticated intellectual class, Western style offices and the modern gadgets of administration.
Shortcomings arise when scholars erroneously believe that once one is familiar with one model of administrative theory, one can draw broad conclusions about the administrative features of all regions without conducting empirical research. And,he stated that administration is the best and most safe prospect of comparative studies as administrative techniques and procedures are similar almost everywhere and in fact we can learn a lot by comparing. Max Weber projected an ideal system of bureaucracy where bureaucracy was shown as a closed system unaffected by the environment. But there are certain shortcomings so far as comparative public administration and the influence of ecology on public administration are concerned. Riggs, Administration and Ecology: Riggs and Comparative Public Administration: Riggs had extensively studied the administrative systems of several countries in a comparative way. It can be either simple definition of the topic or some quotes. Participation is the receptivity, willingness and ability of the people to obey the law of the land.
This school denies that the ruling class networks which support the Monarchy also include capitalists like Thaksin. In extreme contrast, there can be a situation in which every function has a corresponding structure that is specialized for its performance. There is a separate constitution which bears allegiance to the federal constitution of 1787 as well as citizenship for every state and they are all bound together in a federation,thus all working as a whole with their autonomy intact. This means that in prismatic societies the prices charged for the public services vary according to the relationship between the sala official and his clientele. Each structure carries out its own functions. It is in between or lets use the term in transition between the Agraria and Industria society and bears features resembling to both.
First we will discuss the Fused and Diffracted model and then proceed to explain the Prismatic model. The Emperor performs the role akin to Indian president. The rigour of scientific theory should not be expected in these frameworks. The political leaders or ministers are supposed to be policy-makers. There are three level of governments - national or federal,state and local counties,townships,cities,etc. Riggs who studied administrative systems in different countries emphasis on developing countries and why there was a vast amount of disconnect among them while applying the Americanised theories of Public Administration and how they coped up.
These are the two polar types representing contemporary America, and Imperial China respectively. The book skillfully explains how the State plays a critical role in its socio-economic development, and how it faces the new challenges because of globalization and liberalization. The models were developed to study the political and administrative transitions in such societies. Now we will discuss in detail. The Court of Appeal consists of two divisions: the Civil Division hears appeals from the High Court and County Court and certain superior tribunals, while the Criminal Division may only hear appeals from the Crown Court connected with a trial on indictment i. Riggs developed a comparative public administration on the basis of ecology and, for this purpose, he divided all the societies into two broad categories -industria and agraria. Executive is headed by the political executive that is the Prime Minister and his cabinet that consist of ministries staffed by civil servants under ministers.
In administrative terms, this means a change from a situation in which a few structures perform a variety of functions, as in very underdeveloped conditions, to one in which many specific structures perform specific functions, as in highly developed societies like the industrial countries of the west. Moreover, objective comparisons would then likewise be possible. Civil servants are recruited through merit via open competitive exams. They are designed to suggest certain relationships among the different variables they incorporate. The Crown Court is an inferior court in respect of the other work it undertakes, viz. It is a transparent object in this form.
I have made a gist of all this and am attaching herewith, these were made from synergy classnotes and a bit of model answers of various test series. Administration is seen as one of the most significant aspect of any societal arrangement as it makes possible the achievement of governmental function fulfilment. Its decisions are binding on all courts, including itself, apart from the Supreme Court. In Agrarian primordial preferences like caste and given priority. It is in between or lets use the term in transition between the Agraria and Industria society and bears features resembling to both.