While our major purpose in this article is to explore how the fit between task and organizational characteristics is related to motivation, we first want to explore more fully the organizational characteristics of these units, so the reader will better understand what we mean by a fit between task and organization and how it can lead to more effective behavior. Enterprises with highly predictable tasks perform better with organizations characterized by the highly formalized procedures and management hierarchies of the classical approach. Management believes employee's work is based on their own self-interest. Theory Z is not the last word on management, however, as it does have its limitations. For example, the managers at Akron worked in a formalized organization setting with relatively little participation in decision making, and yet they were highly motivated. The objective was to explore more fully how the fit between organization and task was related to successful performance.
Validity of Theory X and Theory Y McGregor himself felt that Theory X had less validity than Theory Y. There are four main stages in the succession planning process, which involve transition movement of new role , initiation, selection, and education. This has important implications for management theory and practice. We can wait for months if necessary before we get feedback from colleagues and the profession. But in many other dimensions of personality, individuals differ, and these differences will determine how a particular person achieves a sense of competence. Theory Y therefore offers a more successful and more positive approach to employee motivation than Theory X. X and Y are both valid styles to adopt at an appropriate moment.
Businessballs Ltd assumes no responsibility for any errors or damages arising. As we have already suggested, we need further investigation of what personality characteristics fit various tasks and organizations. Many organizations are using Theory Y techniques. In arguing for an approach which emphasizes the fit among task, organization, and people, we are putting to rest the question of which organizational approach—the classical or the participative—is best. Using this theory in these types of work conditions allows employees to specialize in particular work areas which in turn allows the company to mass-produce a higher quantity and quality of work. We lose money whenever they do.
Essential to the Theory Y culture is a monitoring, feedback and control system. This managerial style is more effective when used in a workforce that is not essentially motivated to perform. Rather, the real satisfaction of this need is in the successful performance itself, with no diminishing of the motivation as one goal is reached. If it makes sense to the individuals involved, given their needs and their jobs, they will find it rewarding and motivating. Theory Z stresses the need to help workers become generalists, rather than specialists.
Does higher sense of competence motivation result from effective unit performance or from fit? Such an organization need not be coercive or punitive. Giving employees a larger role in an organization makes it more likely that their individual needs will align with the organization's needs. On the other extreme, Theory Y is diametrically opposite to theory X which shows the modern and dynamic approach to individuals and relies on the assumptions that are practical in nature. An organization with this style of management is made up of several levels of supervisors and managers who actively intervene and micromanage the employees. Avoid responsibility and need to be directed. Be aware also that many X theory managers are forced to be X theory by the short-term demands of the organisation and their own superiors - an X theory manager is usually someone with their own problems, so try not to give them any more.
The secret to their success was not what they were producing but how they were managing their people—Japanese employees were engaged, empowered, and highly productive. These two theories represent the extreme ranges of assumptions. He likes to lead rather than to be led by others. In other words, employees have a strong desire for affiliation. The other two performed the relatively uncertain work of research and development in communications technology. . Theory Y workers were characterised by McGregor as: - Consider effort at work as just like rest or play - Ordinary people who do not dislike work.
The performance of work is discretionary and provides a sense of fulfilment, if meaningful. X-Type organizations tend to be top heavy, with managers and supervisors required at every step to control workers. Please reference authorship and copyright of material used, including link s to Businessballs. And because they had different need patterns along these dimensions, both groups were highly motivated by achieving competence from quite different activities and settings. McGregor stressed that Theory Y management does not imply a soft approach.
I can live with that, though. Theory X works on the idea of punishing people to keep the work going, while under theory Y, promotions, rewards, and recognition play an important part. The use of this material is free for self-development, developing others, research, and organizational improvement. McGregor argued that there was nothing wrong or bad about exercising authority or giving instructions. If properly implemented, such an environment would result in a high level of workforce motivation as employees work to satisfy their higher level personal needs through their job. This type of management style is more common than theory X. This allows the individual to receive either a direct reward or a reprimand, depending on the outcome's positive or negative nature.
When people are allowed to contribute more of their own thoughts and personal abilities to tasks, they naturally care more, and will put more effort into ensuring high standards. According to Theory Y, they should have been involved in decision making and been self-directed to feel so motivated. Theory X encourages use of tight control and supervision. In this situation, one would expect employees to dislike their work, avoid responsibility, have no interest in organizational goals, resist change, etc. Maslow stresses the rarely satisfied higher level needs as the motivating force. Theory X can benefit a work place that utilizes an assembly line or manual labor. For this you need to build trust.