Thirdly, the thermometer must dip into the water for some time to achieve stable state of heat transfer and therefore, a more favorable temperature could be obtained. With these different parameters, the flow rate, Reynolds number and friction factor were able to be calculated for each test for water and mercury. Value of K remains almost same for different velocity and head loss values for a given pipe fitting. Along a concentration gradient means that it is moving from an area of high to low concentration. Nearly every movement we make involves friction, and we. Explained what could have been better and highlighted most important concepts from the experiment.
Moody who first published this data in this form. Since this is a group lab experiment it is extremely important that we are able to communicate as a team. Smooth small diameter pipe 2. Another approach that was highly beneficial was having the team split up into two groups, one that collected the data for the lab and one that ran calculations. This way, a flow rate had been determined well before the data team had finished the tests in the turbulent region. This shows that when the head loss of water increases, the time requires collecting 0. To disconnect a test probe from a pressure point, press the metal clip of the side of the pressure point to release the test probe.
The Blasius errors for runs one and two were 258 percent and 53. Geometry Figure 1: The H408 Fluid Friction Apparatus Figure 2: Layout of the Fluid Friction Apparatus In the apparatus shown in Figure 1, there are three main flow circuits which are color coded. Thirdly, the thermometer is not allowed to dip into the water for some time instead removed in a count of five. The errors calculated for the three turbulent flow rates were calculated to be 3,723 percent, 211 percent, and 223 percent respectively. Much like the general trend of fluid velocity in a pipe has shown, the sudden decrease of the diameter of the orifice causes the fluid velocity to increase and the fluid pressure to decrease. From this point the water is delivered to the test panel using another section of flexible hose.
Equation 1 can the be used to determine the theoretical head loss if you know the value of f for the pipe. This was a strength that each team member contributed to, which allowed for the experiment to run more smoothly. Obvious which values were important with use of markers to highlight prevalent values. During the experiment the process of taking the reading from the manometer and flow meter is very important. Equations for calculating the head loss in different sections of the apparatus will be used to determine whether or not the experimental values are accurate to theoretical values. Head loss as a function of the velocity of flow.
In the future, we hope to apply what we have learned to quickly implement these models into the design of processes, and also to identify some of the common losses and problems that occur in piping systems. Fractionally open the control valve and adjust dye. Take readings at a number of different flow rates, altering the flow using the control valve on the apparatus, ten readings is sufficient to produce a good head-flow curve. Fluid friction produces eddies and turbulence, and these form of kinetic energy are eventually. The main purpose of the process was to analyse and identify the regions of laminar flow, and turbulent flow, as well as the transitional region in between. The flexibility and openness of the handout will push us to think about what we know, and how we can apply what we know to designing the experiment. In case of sudden contraction, value of Cc contraction coefficient can be determined Weisbach equation.
There are first aid kits located around the lab, and in case of injury, the assistants in lab will be informed and if necessary 911 may be dialed. We were organized and had great time management skills that paid off during the experiment, and will be beneficial for future labs. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. For turbulent flow, the pressure drop is dependent on the roughness of the surface, while in laminar flow, the roughness effects of the wall are negligible. Objective: Ø To determine the head loss. It was theorized that such low flow rates did not provide enough water to actually fill the pipe full of water.
Governing Equations Basic Head Loss for Strait Pipes Head loss can be expressed as a function of friction factor: eq 1 Where hf is head loss, L is length, D is diameter of pipe, V is the velocity of the flow and g is gravity. This apparatus is complex at first glance and it is important to know which sections of it the experiment was run on. McGraw-Hill Book, New York N. In this experiment, I am using a contact force, a force that exists from physical contact between two things. Pressure Measurement The head loss due to pipe friction is measured by taking pressure readings at different tapping points on the pipe network. The sensors were then inserted into the two taps on pipe two and head losses were recorded for 30 seconds at six second intervals. Below is the figure containing head loss through an orifice for five flow rates.
They also find the losses in a rapid enlargement. The flow rate for run four in all three pipes was. Although the concept of the Impact of a Jet is essentially simple, and it can has a highly hydraulic efficiency, the factor of how can produce a powerful reaction force back is also has to be considerate truly. Classical mechanics, Error, Experiment 714 Words 3 Pages Experiment 3: Fluid Flow Friction and Fitting Loss Objective To determine the pressure or head loss in different diameters pipes, joints and valves Theory Pipe flows belong to a broader class of flows, called internal flows, where the fluid is completely bounded by solid surfaces. The electronic report was submitted on time B. Describe operation of various types of valves 2.
Water will be forced through the manometer, expelling the air in the pipes. The measurement bucket is emptied using a drain plug at its base. In the average person water constitutes 60% to the total body weight. Open the apparatus motor and adjust the flow rate of water. These two values of Re are called the upper and lower critical velocities. Examining the first three runs for pipe two in order of increasing flow rate from 0. We found it to be very interesting how the apparatus communicated with the computer.
Version 42-0014-00-01 Lab RepoRt assistant This document is not meant to be a substitute for a formal laboratory report. In the following figures, the last three points demonstrate turbulent flow, while the first two points represent the laminar flow region. From the previous data obtained regarding the straight pipes in runs four and five, the data for the laminar flow regime runs in the pipe bends should not be given much credence. Post-reflection reiterated the importance of what was discussed in the pre-reflection and explained what was achieved and what it meant to the group. References: H408 Friction Fluid Apparatus User Guide. Diameter measurements are crucial as they are used very often in the calculations used to find head loss, therefore it is highly likely that error can easily propagate. If the fluid velocity and the pipe diameter are known, the Reynolds number can be calculated.